NAGs

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)


Year Formed: 1978
Year Terminated: 2011

Target States:
Spain

Ideational Characteristics:
Ethno-nationalist
Leftist

Objectives:
Secession/Territorial Demand

External Supporters:

Algeria

Cuba

France

Sauth Yemen

Lebanon

Libya

Narrative Summary:

NAG Support Dataset Code: 153

UCDP/PRIO Code: 1156

References:

Alan Pearson, "A convincing case that terrorist activity in western democracies is aided and abetted by the Soviet Union THE TERROR NETWORK" The Globe and Mail (Canada), April 11, 1981 Saturday. 

Argomaniz, Javier and Alberto Vidal-Diez. 2015. Examining Deterrence and Backlash Effects in Counter-Terrorism: The Case of ETA, Terrorism and Political Violence 27 (1): 160-181.

Barros, Carlos Pestana. 2003. An intervention analysis of terrorism: The spanish eta case. Defence and Peace Economics 14 (6): 401-412.

Buesa, Mikel and Thomas Baumert. 2013. UNTANGLING ETA'S FINANCE: AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF THE BASQUE TERRORIST'S ECONOMIC NETWORK AND THE MONEY IT HANDLES. Defence and Peace Economics 24 (4): 317-338.

Calle Luis de la and Ignacio Sánchez-Cuenca. 2013. Killing and Voting in the Basque Country: An Exploration of the Electoral Link Between ETA and its Political Branch. Terrorism and Political Violence, 25 (1): 94-112.

Elizabeth Nash, "EUROPEAN TIMES - MADRID: TEENAGE FIREBOMBERS ADD NEW STRAIN OF FANATICISM TO BASQUE CONFLICT; EUROPEAN TIMES; MADRID", The Independent (London), December 5, 2000, Tuesday.

Encarnación, Omar G. 2007. Democracy and Dirty Wars in Spain. Human Rights Quarterly, 29 (4): 950-972

Fabien Zamora, "Seven injured in car bomb in Spain's Basque country: official", Agence France Presse -- English, September 21, 2008 Sunday.

Fenton Wheeler, "Basque separatist guerrillas terrorizing northern ...", The Associated Press, July 6, 1978.

Guittet, Emmanuel-Pierre. 2008. Is Consensus a Genuine Democratic Value? The Case of Spain's Political Pacts Against Terrorism", Global, Local, Political 33 (3): 267-291.

James M. Markham, "IN A CHARGED BASQUE HOMELAND,IT IS THE POLICE WHO ARE HARRIED", The New York Times, July 21, 1980, Monday, Section A; Page 4, Column 1; Foreign Desk. 

John Darhton, "BASQUE EXILES IN FRANCE LIVE IN FEAR", The New York Times, April 15, 1984, Sunday, Section 1; Part 1; Page 3, Column 1; Foreign Desk.

John Hooper, "Special Report on Spain- The Strengthening Links (1): A confident swirl in Spanish steps - The country that is invigorating many areas of European business, culture and style", The Guardian (London), October 27, 1988.

Michael Dobbs, "Independence Issue Tangles Basque Roots", The Washington Post, September 5, 1986, Friday,  FIRST SECTION; PAGE A27.

Ruth S?na?, "Senior Military Official Predicts More Abu Nidal Hits", The Associated Press, January 21, 1986, Tuesday, International News. 

San Sebastian, "Gunman Kills Former ETA Leader",  The Associated Press, September 10, 1986, Wednesday.

Susan Linnee, "TODAY'S FOCUS: Basque Separatists Pose Problems for Governing Socialists", The Associated Press, August 6, 1985, Tuesday, International News.

Tony Barber, "Destruction, Death ETA's Way of Life", The Moscow Times, July 24, 1997.

____, "A glance at ETA's formation and goals", Associated Press International, October 5, 2007 Friday. 

____, "Basque security tangle", Guardian Weekly, June 14, 1981, Pg. 8.

____, "Five More Basque Separatists Captured", The Associated Press, March 30, 1992, Monday, International News.

____, "Government Offers Direct Talks With ETA Separatists", The Associated Press, August 23, 1984, Thursday, International News.

____, "Home rule accepted Basques cancel plan for demonstrations, The Globe and Mail (Canada), January 3, 1978 Tuesday.

____, "Home rule accepted Basques cancel plan for demonstrations", The Globe and Mail (Canada), January 3, 1978 Tuesday.

____, "Shot ETA hostage dies as Spaniards demonstrate against ETA", Agence France Presse -- English, July 13, 1997.

____, "Spainish royal couple welcomed by Basques", The Globe and Mail (Canada), February 4, 1981 Wednesday.

____, "Sudan's Case Against Libya", Defense & Foreign Affairs, April, 1983, CURRENT ESTIMATES; Pg. 64. 

____, "URUGUAY: ETA'S POLITICAL WING LAUNCHES COUNTER-OFFENSIVE", PS-Inter Press Service, May 20, 1992, Wednesday.