NAGs

Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)


Year Formed: 1984
Year Terminated: Still Active

Target States:
Turkey

Ideational Characteristics:
Ethno-nationalist
Leftist

Objectives:
Demands for Autonomy
Secession/Territorial Demand

External Supporters:
Syria
Lebanon
Iraq
Iran
Greece
Netherlands
Belgium
Narrative Summary:

NAG Support Dataset Code: 163

UCDP/PRIO Code: 1166

References:

Fisher, Mark. "EUROPE; Turkish Businesses, OFfices Hit as Kurds Attack in 29 Cities". The Washington Post. 25 Jun. 1993. Final Edition. sec: First Section; Page A1.

Weymouth, Lally. "Turkey's New Leader Keeps his Distance". The Washington Post. 21 Feb. 1992. Final Edition. sec: Editorial; Page A19.

Pointon, Clare. "This is Kurdistan and we'll fight for it; Village life for Kurds in Turkey has changed. Women, young people, entire families have joined the struggle, writes Clare Pointon". The Independent (London). 4 Apr. 1991. sec: Living Page; Page 16.

Barber, Tony. "Turks in uproar at pro-Kurd report". The Independent (London). 15 Aug. 1995. sec: International; Page 9.

Pope, Hugh. "The Kurds; Why are they causing havoc in Europe? - Why are the Turks making war on them? - Why does Saddam keep hounding them?". The Independent (London). 27 Jun. 1993. sec: Foreign News Page; Page 12.

Pope, Hugh. "Talabani meets worried Turks". The Independent (London). 26 Jul. 1991. sec: Foreign News Page; Page 12.

Pope, Hugh. "60 die as Kurds and Turks clash". The Independent (London). 31 Aug. 1992. sec: International News Page; Page 9.

Adams, James. "Turkey-Iraqi deal to rout Kurds". The Sunday Times (London). 9 Apr. 1995. sec: Overseas news.

Naxos, Shyam Bhatia & Doyle, Leonard. "Poison bomber offers secrets for sanctuary". The Guardian (London). 28 Sep. 1997. sec: The Observer News Page; PG. 1.

Bhatia, Shyam. "Bomber on the run has no place to hide". The Guardian (London). 28 Sep. 1997. sec: The Obersever News Page; Pg. 14.

Morgan, David. "Lastwod: The Finalsay: Weekend Letter: Pillars of Wisdom". The Guardian (London). 27 Sep. 1997. sec: The Guardian Weekend Page; PG. TT86.

Morris, Chris. "Turkey jails Kurds and charges mayors". The Guardian (London). 25 Feb. 2000. sec: Guardian Foreign Pages; Pg. 14.

Rugman, Jonathan. "Stuck in the middle with death". The Guardian (London). 25 Sep. 1993. sec: The Guardian Features Page; Pg 25. 

Rugman, Jonathan. "Kurdish Party to Boycott Turkish Election After Threats by Rebels". The Guardian (London). 5 Nov. 1994. sec: The Guardian Foreign Page; Pg 13.

Rugman, Jonathan. "Kurds find clout in Turkish poll: Jonathan Rugman in south-east Turkey assesses Sunday's general election". The Guardian (London). 18 Oct. 1991.

Rugman, Jonathan. "Kurds bombed by Turkey in 'safe haven'". The Guardian (London). 12 Oct. 1991. 

Rugman, Jonathan. "Demirel Calls for New Iraqi Border". The Guardian (London). 3 May 1995. sec: The Guardian Foreign Page; Pg. 13.

Rugman, Jonathan. "Kurds Threaten Show of Force". The Guardian (London). 18 Mar. 1992. sec: Foreign; Pg. 4.

Bamford, David. "Turkish rebels hunted after killed". The Guardian (London). 22 Jun. 1987. 

Teimourian, Hazhir. "Westerm Europe braced for wave of guerrilla violence". The Times (London). 5 Jan. 1988. sec: Issue 62969.

Gutman, Matthew. "Major mess in Asia minor". The Jerusalem Post. 7 Mar. 2003. sec: Features.

Lahoud, Lamid. "Double-Edged Sword for Kurds". The Jerusalem Report. 10 Jan. 1991. sec: Pg. 33.

Davis, Joyce M. "Turkish Official, IN U.S., Issues Another Warning To Syria". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 9 Oct. 1998. SF Edition. sec: National; Pg. A05.

Sopinska, Joanna. "EU/Turkey: EP To Keep Ankara's Democratisation Efforts Under Close Watch". Europolitics New Neighbours (English). 29 Jan. 2009. sec: No. 0231.

Salome, Louis J. "Turkish-Syrian dispute a potential Mideast flash point; Border posts on both sides have been fortified as tension rise over; Kurdish guerrilla attacks". The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. 28 Jul. 1996. All Edition. sec: Foreign News; Pg. 16A.

Mater, Nadire. "Syria: Talks with Turkey on Kurdish rebel hideouts in the Bekaa". Inter Press Service. 16 Apr. 1992. 

Buckley, D. "Kurds to hold hostages 'for weeks'". Courier-Mail. 21 Aug. 1993. 

Alemda, Zeynep. "Premier Ciller to Explain Kurdish Problem to its Allies". Associated Press Worldstream. 

Dakroub, Hussein. "Lebanon denies sheltering Kurdish rebels, backs Syria with Turkey-Kurdish Re". Associated Press International. 5 Oct. 1998. sec: International News.

Siegel, Robert & Ivan Watson. "Conflict Flares Up Between Kurds, Turkish Forces". All Things Considered(Show). 17 Mar. 2006.

Yassine, Salim. "Kurdish group would close Lebanon training camp, if asked". Agence France Presse-English. 17 Apr. 1992. sec: News.

Laub, Karin. "Israel finds itself tangled in a new confrontation". The Associated Press. 18 Feb. 1999. sec: International News.

Barzanji, Yahya. "Former rebel leader says Kurdish rebels based in Turkey have left northern Iraq". Associated Press International. 30 Nov. 2007. sec: International News.

Joseph, Ralph. "Rafsanjani holds talks with Turkish interior minister in Tehran". United Press International. 14 Sep. 1992. BC cycle. sec: International.

Roelofsma, Derk Kinnane. "Analysis: An unwelcome cuckoo in the nest- Part 1". United Press International. 8 Jan. 2001. sec: General News.

Roelofsma, Derk Kinnane. "Turk, Iranian rivalry in Iraq". United Press International. 18 Jan. 2001. sec: General News.

-"Turkish troops pound Iraq Kurds' bases". United Press International. 21 Mar. 1995. BC cycle. sec: International.

-"Turkey continues rebel hunt in N. Iraq". United Press International. 19 Mar. 1997. BC cycle. sec: International.

-"Turkey: Amrs trukc were for rebels". United Press International. 24 Jan. 1996. BC cycle. sec: International.

-"UPI Intelligence Watch". UPI. 7 Apr. 2006. 

-"The Cold Killers of 17 November Who Always Go Free". The Guardian (London). 28 Sep. 1997. sec: The Observer News Page; Pg 14.

-"Struggle for a separate state". Herald Sun. 25 Jun. 1993.

-"Hunt Steps Up For Ark Men". Herald Sun. 9 Sep. 1991.

-"Why the Kurds Can't be Ignored". Sydney Morning Herald (Australia). 27 Mar. 1992. Late Edition. sec: NEWS AND FEATURES; Leaders; Pg. 10.

-"Syria agrees to close down PKK camp: diplomatic sources". Agence France Presse-English. 147 Apr. 1992. sec: NEWS.

-"Kurdish rebels up the stakes against Turkey". Agence France Presse-English. 5 Jul. 2002.

-"Abdullah Ocalan, 'charismatic leader' or 'bloody murderer'?". Agence France Presse-English. 20 Nov. 1998. sec: International News.

-"Photographs of soldiers holding several heads is 'montage': army". Agence France Presse-English. 12 Jan. 1996. sec: International News.

-"European rights body agrees to hear Kurdish claims of abuse". Agence France Presse-English. 20 Oct. 1994. sec: International News.

-"No proof of PKK training camps in Netherlands: govt". Agence France Presse-English. 24 Nov. 1998. sec: International News.

-"Dutch police raid Kurdish training camp". Agence France Presse-English. 12 Nov. 2004. 

-"Dutch police raid Kurdish training camp, arrest 38". Agence France Presse-English. 12 Nov. 2004. 

-"Missing Kurds fount at PKK training camp in Belgium". Agence France Presse. 23 Nov. 1996. sec: International News.

-"Kurds deny opening office in Athens". Agence France Presse-English. sec: International News.

-"Kurdish militants evacuate camo in eastern Lebanon". Agence France Presse-English. 7 May 1992. sec: News.

-"Iran says several people killed in Turkish bombing raid, warns of reprisals". Agence France Presse-English. 18 Jul. 1999. sec: International News.

-"Turkish Army for new operation against Kurds in north Iraq: report". Agence France Presse-English. 6 Sep. 1991. sec: News.

-"Syria denies logistic support for Turkish Kurd rebels". Agence France Presse-English. sec: International news.

-"13 killed in fresh Turkey clashes". Agence France Presse-English. 6 Jul. 2010. 

-"Turkey seeks end to Syrian support for Kurdish rebels". Agence France Presse-English. 13 Apr. 1993. sec: News.

-"Turkish army vows to combat resurgent Kurdish violence, renews call to US". Agence France Presse-English. 8 Jul. 2004. sec: International News. 

-"Turkey's patience running out over Iraqi safe haven for PKK: PM". Agence France Presse-English. 20 Jul. 2005. 

-"URGENT Turkey warns it might attack PKK en Iraq". Agence France Presse. 6 Sep. 1996. sec: International News.

-"Turkey threatens to reduce Euphrates' water flow to Syria". Xinhua General News Service. 13 Oct. 1991. 

-"Two killed by Kurdish rebels in Turkey". Xinhua General News Service. 12 Jul. 1993. 

-"Turkey urges all countries to ban PKK". Xinhua News Agency. 17 Feb. 1998. 

-"Ankara scored a point in Geneva, but 'PKK card remains in Assad's pocket', says Turkish columnists". Mideast Mirror. 17 Jan. 1994. sec: TURKEY; Vol. 8 No. 10.

-"Syrias Tishreen accuses Turkish press of seeking to wreck Damascus-Ankara ties". Mideast Mirror. 10 Nov. 1993. sec: ISRAEL; Vol. 7 No. 218.

-"Missing Libyan dissident met Qadhafi aide". Mideast Mirror. 16 Dec. 1993. sec: TURKEY; Vol. 7 No. 244.

-"Uncertainty about alleged anti-PKK operation inside Syria". Mideast Mirror. 10 Jan. 1994. sec: The Arab World; Vol. 8 No. 5.

-"Where is Abdallah Ocalan?". Mideast Mirror. 14 Oct. 1998. sec: TURKEY, SYRIA, KURDS; Vol. 12 No. 198.

-"PKK cease-fire part of phased Western plan leading to Kurdish autonomy, followed by federation and separation". Mideast Mirror. 12 May 1993. sec: Turkey, Vol. 07 No. 90.

-"PKK chief not unnerved by Turkey-Syria contacts". Mideast Mirror. 9 Apr. 1998. sec: TURKEY; Vol. 12 No. 69.

-"Kurdish Rebels Kill Seven in Village Raid". Associated Press Worldstream. 6 Apr. 1995. 

-"AP Photo BRU104 Defying Turkey, Kurds Plan Parliament in Exile". Associated Press Worldstream. 12 Jan. 1995. sec: International News.

-"With BC-Turkey-Kurds About 1000 Kurdish Refugees Protest Against Turkish In". Associated Press Worldstream. 27 Mar. 1995. sec: International News.

-"Turkey Says Iraq May Be Arming Kurdish Rebels". The Associated Press. 20 Oct. 1991. sec: International News.

-"Turkish troops chase rebels into Kurdish safe haven". The Ottawa Citizen. 16 Apr. 1994. Final Editiopn. sec: NEWS; Pg. A6.

-"Turkey, Syria said to conduct joint operation against rebel Kurds' party". BBC Worldwide Monitoring. BBC Monitoring Europe- Political. 5 Mar. 2007.

-"Turkey: Members of banned pro-Kurdish party to join Peace and Democracy Party". BBC Worldwide Monitoring. BBC Monitoring Europe- Political. 18 Dec. 2009.

-"Fight against Kurdish separatists to help Syria to close with Turkey". Trend Daily News( Azerbaijan). 16 Sep. 2009. sec: Foreign Policy.

-"Syria detains 400 Kurdish rebels in raids, says agency". Daily News Egypt. 1 Jul. 2010.

-"Kurd nationalists heavily guarded at trial in Turkey". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 14 Apr. 1981. 

-"Turkey drives rebels from Iraq Ankara seeks to deny Kurds sanctuary". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 24 Oct. 1992. 

-"Top Turkish court bans pro-Kurdish party". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin (Ontario, CA). 13 Mar. 2003. sec: Conflict in Iraq.

-"PKK has 10,000 to 15,000 'Guerrillas'". Middle East News Items. 7 May 1997. 

-"More Security Discussions with Turkey". IPR Strategic Business Information Database. 27 Nov. 2000.

-"PKK changes name-- only". IPR Strategic Business Information Database. 22 Apr. 2002.

-"New Iranian Defector Threatens Relations with Turkey". IPR Strategic Business Information Database. 24 Oct. 2000.