United Tajik Opposition (UTO)Year Formed: 1992Year Terminated: 1999Target States: Tajikistan Ideational Characteristics:Objectives:Change of Regime Type External Supporters:
Akiner, S. (2001) Tajikistan: Disintegration or Reconciliation? (London, Royal Institute of International A?airs).
Arendt, H. (1970) On Violence (New York, Harcourt, Brace and World).
Atkin, M. (1994) ‘The Politics of Polarization in Tajikistan’, in Malik, H. (ed.) (1994) Central Asia: Its Strategic Importance and Future Prospects (New York, St. Martin’s Press).
Atkin, M. (1997a) ‘Thwarted Democratization in Tajikistan’, in Dawisha, K. & Parrot, B. (eds) (1997). Atkin, M. (1997) ‘Tajikistan: Reform, Reaction and Civil War’, in Bremmer, I. & Taras, R. (eds) (1997) New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Babadzhanov, B. (2000) ‘Sredneaziatskoe Dukhovnoe Upravlenie Musulman: Predystoriya i Posledstviya Ego Raspada’, in Olcott, M. B. & Malashenko, A. (eds) (2000) Mnogomernye Granitsy Tsentral’noi Azii (Moscow, Carnegie Center).
Babadzhanov, B. (2002) ‘Islam in Uzbekistan: From the Struggle for ‘‘Religious Purity’’ to Political Activism’, in Rumer, B. (ed.) (2002) Central Asia: A Gathering Storm (Armonk, NY, M.E. Sharpe).
Carlisle, D. (1991) ‘Power and Politics in Soviet Uzbekistan: from Stalin to Gorbachev’, in Fierman, W. (ed.) (1991) Soviet Central Asia: The failed transformation (Boulder, Westview Press).
Carlisle, D. (1995a) ‘Islam Karimov and Uzbekistan: Back to the Future?’, in Colton, T. J. & Tucker, R. C. (eds) (1995) Patterns in Post- Soviet Leadership (Boulder, Westview Press).
Carlisle, D. S. (1995b) ‘Geopolitics and Ethnic Problems of Uzbekistan and Its Neighbors’, in Ro’i, Y. (ed.) (1995). Collier, P. & Hoe?er, A. (2001) Greed and Grievance in Civil War, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2355. (Washington DC, World Bank).
Collier, P. & Sambanis, N. (2002) ‘Understanding Civil War: A New Agenda’, The Journal of Con?ict Resolution, 46, 1. Collins, K. (2002) ‘Clans, Pacts and Politics in Central Asia’, Journal of Democracy, 13, 3. Collins, K. (2003a) ‘Tajikistan: Bad Peace Agreements and Prolonged Civil Con?ict’ in Sriram, C. L. & Welmester, K. (eds) (2003) From Promise to Practice: Strengthening UN Capacities for the Prevention of Violent Con?ict (Boulder & London, Lynne Rienner Publishers).
Collins, K. (2003b) ‘The Political Role of Clans in Central Asia’, Comparative Politics, 35, 2.
Collins, K. (2006) Clan Politics and Regime Transition in Central Asia (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Critchlow, J. (1991a) ‘Prelude to ‘‘Independence’’: How the Uzbek Party Apparatus Broke Moscow’s Grip on Elite Recruitment’, in Fierman, W. (ed.) (1991).
Critchlow, J. (1991b) Nationalism in Uzbekistan: A Soviet Republic’s Road to Sovereignty (Boulder, Westview Press). Dawisha, K. & Parrot, B. (eds) (1997) Con?ict, Cleavage and Change in Central Asia and Caucasus (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press)
. Emirbayer, M. and Goodwin, J. (1994) ‘Network Analysis, Culture and the Problem of Agency’, American Journal of Sociology, 99, 6.
Fainsod, M. (1970) How Russia is Ruled (Cambridge, Harvard University Press).
Fane, D. (1996) ‘Ethnicity and Regionalism in Uzbekistan: Maintaining Stability Through Authoritarian Control’, in Drobizheva, L., Gottemoeller, R., McArdle Kelleher, C. & Walker, L. (eds) (1996) Ethnic Con?ict in the Post-Soviet World: Case Studies and Analysis (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe).
Fearon, J. (1995) ‘Rationalist Explanations for War’, International Organization, 49, 3.
Fearon, J. D. & Laitin D. D. (2003) ‘Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War’, American Political Science Review, 97, 1. Fierman, W. (ed.) (1991) Soviet Central Asia: The Failed Transformation (Boulder, Westview Press).
Fierman, W. (1997) ‘Political Development in Uzbekistan: Democratization?’, in Dawisha, K. & Parrot, B. (eds) (1997).
Filson, D. & Werner, S. (2002) ‘A Bargaining Model of War and Peace: Anticipating the Onset, Duration and Outcome of War’, American Journal of Political Science, 46, 4.
Foroughhi, P. (2002) ‘Tajikistan: Nationalism, Ethnicity, Con?ict and Socio-economic Disparities Sources and Solutions’, Journal of Muslim Minority A?airs 22, 1.
Gleason, G. (1993) ‘Uzbekistan: from Statehood to Nationhood?’, in Bremmer, I. & Taras, R. (eds) (1993) Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Gleason, G. (1997) The Central Asian States: Discovering Independence (Boulder, Westview Press). Gretsky, S. (1994) ‘Pro?le: Qadi Akbar Turajonzade’, Central Asia Monitor, 3, 1.
Gurr, T. R. (1993) ‘Why Minorities Rebel: A Global Analysis of Communal Mobilization and Con?ict since 1945’, International Political Science Review, 14, 2.
Gurr, T. R. (2000) Peoples versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century (Washington, DC, US Institute of Peace Press).
Gurr, T. R. & Har?, B. (1994) Ethnic Con?ict in World Politics (Boulder, Westview Press). Handbook of Central Asia (1956) Bureau of Social Science Research, Human Relations Area Files Inc. Vol. III (New Haven).
Harmstone, T. R. (1970) Russia and Nationalism in Central Asia: The Case of Tadzhikistan (Baltimore & London, The Johns Hopkins Press).
Holloway, D. & Stedman, S. J. (2002) ‘Civil Wars and State Building in Africa and Eurasia’, in Beissinger, M. & Young, C. (eds) (2002) Beyond State Crisis?: Postcolonial Africa and PostSoviet Eurasia in Comparative Perspective (Washington, DC, Woodrow Wilson Center Press).
Hough, J. (1969) The Soviet Prefects (Cambridge, Harvard University Press). Ilkhamov, A. (2007) ‘Neopatrimonialism, Interest Groups and Patronage Networks: The Impasses of the Governing System in Uzbekistan’, Central Asian Survey, 26, 1.
Ishanov, A. I. (1978) Rol Kompartii i Sovetskogo Pravitelstva v Sozdanii Natsionalnoi Gosudarstvennosti Uzbekskogo Naroda (Tashkent).
Jawad, N. & Tadjbakhsh, S. (1995) Tajikistan: A Forgotten Civil War (London, Minority Rights Group).
Kalyvas, S. (2006) The Logic of Violence in Civil War (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Kalyvas, S. & Sambanis, N. (2005) ‘Bosnia’s Civil War: Origins and Violence Dynamics’, in Collier, P. & Sambanis, N. (eds) (2005) Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis Volume 2 (Washington, DC, The World Bank).
Knoke, D. & Kuklinski, J. (1982) Network Analysis (Beverly Hills, CA, Sage).
Laitin, D. D. (1995) ‘National Revivals and Violence’, Archeology of European Sociology, 36, 1.
Lake, D. A. (2003) ‘International Relations Theory and Internal Con?ict: Insights from the Interstices’, International Studies Review, 5,4.
Lipovsky, I. (1995) ‘The Central Asian Cotton Epic’, Central Asian Survey, 14, 4.
Lubin, N. & Rubin, B. R. (1999) Calming the Fergana Valley: Development and Dialogue in the Heart of Central Asia, Report on the Fergana Valley Working Group of the Center for Preventive Action, Preventive Action Reports, Vol. 4 (New York, The Century Foundation Press).
Luong, P. J. (1999) ‘The Future of Central Asian Statehood’, Central Asia Monitor, 8, 1
. Luong, P. J. (2002) Institutional Change and Political Continuity in Post-Soviet Central Asia: Power, Perceptions and Pact (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press). Niyazi, A. (1998) ‘Tajikistan I: The Regional Dimension of Con?ict’, in Waller, M., Coppieters, B. & Malashenko, A. (eds) (1998) Con?icting Loyalties and the State in Post-Soviet Russia and Eurasia (London, Frank Cass)
. Olcott, M. B. (1995) ‘Islam and Fundamentalism in Independent Central Asia’, in Ro’i, Y. (ed.) (1995). Polat, A. (2000) ‘The Islamic Revival in Uzbekistan: A Threat to Stability?’, in Sagdeev, R. & Eisenhower, S. (eds) (2000) Islam and Central Asia: An Enduring Legacy or an Evolving Threat? (Washington, DC, Center for Political and Strategic Studies).
Powell, R. (1999) In the Shadow of Power: States and Strategies in International Politics (Princeton, Princeton University Press).
Powell, R. (2004) ‘The Ine?cient Use of Power: Costly Con?ict with Complete Information’, American Political Science Review, 98, 2.
Rigby, T. H. &Harasymiw, B. (eds) (1983) Leadership Selection and Patron-Client Relations in the USSR and Yugoslavia (London, George Allen and Unwin). Ro’i, Y. (ed.) (1995) Muslim Eurasia: Con?icting Legacies (London, Frank Cass).
Roy, O. (2000) The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations (New York, New York University Press).
Rubin, B.R. (1993) ‘The Fragmentation of Tajikistan’, Survival 35, 4. Rubin, B.R. (1995a) Fragmentation of Afghanistan (New Haven, CT, Yale University Press).
Rubin, B. R. (1995b) ‘Russian Hegemony and State Breakdown in the Periphery Causes and Consequences of the Civil War in Tajikistan’, Paper prepared for the Carnegie Project on Political Order, Con?ict and Nationalism in the Former Soviet Union.
Ruby, W. (1992) ‘Tajik President Creates Guard to Crush Protests’, Christian Science Monitor, 6, May. Schatz, E. (2004) Modern Clan Politics: The Power of ‘Blood’ in Kazakhstan and Beyond (Seattle, WA, Washington University Press).
Schatz, E. (2005) ‘Reconceptualizing Clans: Kinship Networks and Statehood in Kazakhstan’, Nationalities Papers, 33, 2. Scott, J. C. (1972) ‘Patron–Client Politics and Political Change in Southeast Asia’, The American Political Science Review, 66, 1. Tadjbakhsh, S. (1993) ‘Causes and Consequences of the Civil War’, Central Asian Monitor, 2, 1
Tilly, C. (2003) The Politics of Collective Violence (New York, Cambridge University Press).
Tunc¸er-K?lavuz,I.(2007)‘UnderstandingViolentCon?ict:AComparativeStudyofTajikistanand Uzbekistan’, PhD dissertation (Bloomington, Indiana University).
Tunc¸er-K?lavuz,I.(2009a)‘TheRoleofNetworksinTajikistan’sCivilWar:NetworkActivationand Violence Specialists’, Nationalities Papers, 37, 5.
Tunc¸er-K?lavuz,I.(2009b)‘PoliticalandSocialNetworksinTajikistanandUzbekistan:‘‘Clan’’, Region and Beyond’, Central Asian Survey, 28, 3.
Uzbekskaya SSR Ensiklopediya (1981) Uzbekskaia SSR Ensiklopediia (Tashkent).
Vaisman, D. (1995) ‘Regionalism and Clan Loyalty in the Political Life of Uzbekistan’, in Ro’i, Y. (ed.) (1995)
. Werner, S., Davis, D. & Bueno de Mesquita, B. (2003) Dissolving Boundaries (Malden, MA, Blackwell).
Woodward, S.L. (1995) Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War (The Brookings Institution, Washington DC).
World Bank (1992) Statistical Handbook: States of the former USSR (Washington, DC, World Bank).
World Bank (1993) Statistical Hand Book 1993: States of the Former USSR (Washington, DC, The World Bank)