NAGs

South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO)


Year Formed: 1966
Year Terminated: 1988

Target States:
Sauth Africa

Ideational Characteristics:
Ethno-nationalist

Objectives:
Secession/Territorial Demand

External Supporters:

Angola

Zambia

Soviet Union

Narrative Summary:

NAG Support Dataset Code: 273

UCDP/PRIO Code: 1307

References:

Caryle Murphy, "Namibian Church Leaders Reexamine Ties With Guerrillas", The Washington Post, January 3, 1979, Wednesday, First Section; A15.

Carle Murphy, "South Africans Launch Assault Into Zambia", The Washington Post, August 25, 1978, Friday,  First Section; A22.

Caryle Murphy, "S. African Troops Raid Across Border", The Washington Post, March 7, 1979, Wednesday, First Section; A14. 

Caryle Murphy, "South Africa Reports 216 Killed In Raids on Namibians in Angola; South Africa Says 216 Killed In Raids on Namibians' Camps", The Washington Post, June 14, 1980, Saturday, First Section; A1. 

Christopher S. Wren, "As Crowds Cheer, Namibia Guerrilla Chief Ends Exile", The New York Times, September 15, 1989, Friday, Section A; Page 3, Column 3; Foreign Desk.

David Bresford, "The lethal legacy of Major Leutwein: The second of two articles looks at Namibia's future without the 'fatherland", The Guardian (London), January 25, 1989.

David B. Ottaway, "Namibian Militants Assail West's Plan for Territory; Namibian Nationalists Denounce Western Peace Proposals", The Washington Post, June 9, 1978, Friday, First Section; A1. 

Dusko Dade, U.S. Condemns Raid in Angola; U.S. Joins Censure of S. Africa; U.N. Condemns S. Africans Raid in Angola, The Washington Post, May 7, 1978, Sunday, First Section; A1.

Glenn Franke, "SWAPO Proves Durable Foe of S. Africa in Contest for Namibia", The Washington Post, May 6, 1984, Sunday.

Greg Myre, "SWAPO Kicks Off Campaign, Vows to Make Things Better for Blacks", The Associated Press, July 2, 1989, Sunday.

Joseph Lelyveld, "SOUTH AFRICA GENERAL ASSERTS RAIDS INTO ANGOLA DISRUPT INSURGENTS", The New York Times, August 1, 1981, Saturday, Section 1; Page 3, Column 1; Foreign Desk. 

Hayek, Patricia. 2014. Nationalism's Exile: Godfrey Nangonya and SWAPO's Sacrifice in Southern Angola. Journal of Southern African Studies 40 (6): 1305-1324.

Kevin Toolis, "Spy case adding to SWAPO's woes", The Globe and Mail (Canada), March 8, 1986 Saturday.

Leon Das, War Without Frontiers, Battle Lines; Guerrilla Conflict in Angola: A War Without Battle Lines", The Washington Post, August 8, 1977, Monday, First Section; A1.

Meyer Brownstone, "Angola incursion", The Globe and Mail (Canada), October 26, 1981 Monday.

Oakland Ross, "Freed rebel still favors revolution", The Globe and Mail (Canada), December 5, 1987.
 
Patrick Laurance, "Death toll of at least 62 in gun battle inside Angola/ Government troops clash with South West Africa Territory Force", The Guardian (London), January 27, 1987.
 
Peter Godwin, "South Africa jets hit Swapo bases", The Sunday Times (London), February 21 1988, Sunday.
 
Peter Goodspeed, "Namibia's bloody battle for independence Children bear the biggest scars of guerrilla war with South Africa that has killed 20,000 in 21 years", The Toronto Star, July 4, 1987, Saturday, INSIGHT; Pg. B4.
 
Phyllis Johnson, "S. Africa, guerrillas clash over UN plan for Namibia", The Globe and Mail (Canada), February 14, 1979 Wednesday.
 
Richard Dowden, "Peace in the balance: The irony of the fighting in Namibia is that Swapo has most to lose from the violence", The Independent, April 4 1989, Tuesday.
 
Robert G. Kalser and Walter Pincus, "Angola Says It Will Try to Curb Rebels; U.S. Officials Call Luanda Talks 'Good'; Cuba Issue Remains", The Washington Post, June 28, 1978, Wednesday, First Section; A1. 
 
Shigwedha, Vilho Amukwaya. 2014. The Relationship Between UNITA and SWAPO: Allies and Adversaries. Journal of Southern African Studies, 40 (6): 1275-1287.
 
Shubin Vladimir. 2007. Unsung Heroes: The Soviet Military and the Liberation of Southern Africa. Cold War History. 7 (2): 251-262.
 
Shubin, Vladimir and Andrei Tokarev. 2001. War in Angola: a Soviet dimension, Review of African Political Economy, 28 (90): 607-618.
 
Taylor, Ian. 1997. China and swapo: The role of the people's republic in Namibia's liberation and post?independence relations. South African Journal of International Affairs 5 (1): 110-122.
 
Victoria Brittain, "Angola's civil war ends with signing of accord", The Guardian (London), May 31, 1991.
 
Williams Christian A. 2011. Ordering the Nation: SWAPO in Zambia, 1974–1976, Journal of Southern African Studies, 37 (4): 693-713.
 
William N. Oatis, "The recognized liberation movement for South-West ...", The Associated Press, August 11, 1977.
 
____, "AN INVESTIGATION by South African Catholic bishops", Guardian Weekly, May 23, 1982.
 
____, "Namibian admits link to Soviets", The Globe and Mail (Canada), March 30, 1982 Tuesday.
 
____, "Namibia's difficult birth", The Globe and Mail (Canada), March 12, 1979 Monday.
 
____, "PRETORIA ENDING RAID INTO ANGOLA", The New York Times, January 14, 1984, Saturday, Section 1; Page 3, Column 1; Foreign Desk. 
 
____, "South Africans return to Namibian bases", The Globe and Mail (Canada), April 27, 1989 Thursday. 
 
____, "S. African Troops in Angola", The Washington Post, March 18, 1982, Thursday, First Section; World News; Around The World; A33.