NAGs

Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)


Year Formed: 1990
Year Terminated: 2012

Target States:
Rwanda

Ideational Characteristics:
NOID

Objectives:
Toppling an Existing Leadership

External Supporters:

Democratic Republic of Congo

Germany

France

Spain

Canada

Netherlands

USA

Sudan

North Korea

Uganda

Narrative Summary:

NAG Support Dataset Code: 340

UCDP/PRIO Code: 1380

References:

Amnesty International. 2005. Democratic Republic of Congo: Arming the East. London: Amnesty International.

Autesserre, S?verine. 2006. "Local Violence, International Indifference? Post-Con flict "Settlement" in the Eastern D.R. Congo (2003-2005). Ph.D. diss., New York University.

Global Witness. 2005. Under-Mining Peace. Tin: The Explosive Trade in Cassiterite in Eastern DRC. Washington, D.C.: Global Witness.

Human Rights Watch. 2004. D.R. Congo: War Crimes in Bukavu. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Watch.

Institute for Security Studies. 2004. Growing Instability in the Kivus: Testing the DRC Transition to the Limits. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.

International Crisis Group. 2003. The Kivus: The Forgotten Crucible of the Congo Con flict. Brussels: International Crisis Group Africa Report Brussels. _. 2004. Back to the Brink in the Congo. Brussels:

International Crisis Group Africa Briefing. _. 2005. The Congo's Transition Is Failing: Crisis in the Kivus. Brussels: Interna tional Crisis Group. 

Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2003. "The Ontology of 'Political Violence': Action and Identity in Civil Wars." American Political Science Review (1-3): 475-94. _. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Mamdani, Mahmood. 2001. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

MONUC. 2004. "Kivu Strategy and Kivu Offices Action Plans." Kinshasa (D.R. Congo) : United Nations

Pourtier, Roland. 2004. L'?conomie mini?re au Kivu et ses implications r?gionales {version provisoire) : Rapport suite ? une mssion au Nord Kivu, au Sud Kivu, et au Rwanda. Paris: OCDE-Initiative for Central Africa/Initiative pour l'Afrique Central.

Romkema, Hans. 2004. Update on the DRC Transition: The Case of the Kivu Provinces. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies. Staibano, Carina. 2005. Enhancing the

U.N. Capacity. Part 2: The Democratic Republic of Congo: Enhancing U.N. Peacekeeping Capacity-Some Operational Aspects. Depart ment of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University. Synergie Vie. 2004. M?moire Sur Les Entraves Au Rappatriement Des Groupes Arm?s Hutu ?trangers Dans Le Kivu. Bukavu (D.R. Congo):

Synergie Vie. U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2003-6. Monitoring De La Situation Humanitaire En RDC. Kinshasa (D.R. Congo): U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Aid. _. 2005. Pour Ou Contre Les Civils: L'ambiguite Mayi Mayi. Kinshasa (D.R. Congo) : U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Aid.

U.N. Security Council (2004). Report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council on the Arm Embargo in the Democratic Republic of Congo. New York: United Nations. _. 2005a. Nineteenth Report of the Secr?taire-G?n?ral on the United Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. New York: United Nations. _. 2005b. Report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council on the Arm Embargo in the Democratic Republic of Congo. New York: United Nations. _. 2005c. Resolution 1592 (2005). New York: United Nations. _. 2005d. Seventeenth Report of the Secr?taire-G?n?ral on the United Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. New York: United Nations. _. 2005e. Sixteenth Report of the Secr?taire-G?n?ral on the United Organization Mis sion in the Democratic Republic of Congo. New York: United Nations.

Van Acker, Frank, and Koen Vlassenroot. 2000. 'Youth and Conflict in Kivu: 'Komona Clair.'" Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, www.jha.ac.

Van Hoyweghen, Saskia, and Koen Vlassenroot. 2000. "Ethnic Ideology and Con flict in South Saharian Africa: The Culture Clash Revisited." In Ruddy Doom and Jan F. J. Gorus, eds., Politics of Identity and Economics of Conflict. Brussels: VUB University Press.

Vlassenroot, Koen. 2000. "The Promise of Ethnic Conflict: Militarization and Enclave Formation in South Kivu." In Didier Goyvaerts, Conflict and Ethnicity in Central Africa, 59-109. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Culture of Asia and Africa. Willame, Jean-Claude. 1997. Banyarwanda Et Banyamulenge: Violences Ethniques Et Ges tion De L'identitaire Au Kivu. Paris: L'H