NAGs

Contras / Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN)


Year Formed: 1982
Year Terminated: 1990

Target States:
Nicaragua

Ideational Characteristics:
Other:

Rightist


Objectives:
Toppling an Existing Leadership

External Supporters:

United States of America

Honduras

Israel

Argentina

Saudi Arabia

Panama

Switzerland

Taiwan

South Korea

Venezuela

Guatemala

Narrative Summary:

NAG Support Dataset Code: 423

UCDP/PRIO Code: 1620

References:

Oberdorfer, Don. "CIA Planning to Back More Nicaragua Rebels". The Washington Post. 14 Jul. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1.

Oberdorfer, Don & Cannon, Lou & Lardner Jr., Geroge. "Private U.S. Groups Raise Funds For Contras". The Washington Post. 10 Sep. 1984. Final Edition. sec: First Section; General News; A22.

Isikoff, Michael. "Washington Times Sponsors Contras Fund". The Washington Post. 7 May 1985. Final Edition. sec: Business; E1.

Tyler, Patrick E. & Cody, Edward. "U.S., Honduras Troop Exercise Back on Track". The Washington Post. 19 Jan. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1. 

Brinkley, Joel. "C.I.A CHIEF DEFENDS MANUAL FOR NICARAGUAN REBELS". The New York Times. 2 Nov 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 3; Column 3; Foreign Desk.

Brinkley, Joel. "COSTA RICAN AIDES SAID TO GET BRIBES". The New York Times. 23 Apr. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 9; Column 1; Foreign Desk.

Brinkley, Joel. "THREATS BY C.I.A SAID TO INFLUENCE ANTI-SANDINISTAS". The New York Times. 22 Apr. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section 1; Part 1; Page 1; Colmn 4; Foreign Desk.

Dickey, Christopher, & Barger, Brian. "Exiles Battling Sandinitas Say U.S. Undercuts Effort". The Washington Post. 8 Aug. 1982. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A12.

Dickey, Christopher. "Rebels Want U.S. Openly to Declare Support". The Washington Post. 4 Apr. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; World News; A23.

Dickey, Christopher. "U.S. Support Bolsters Rebels' Confidence Inside Nicaragua; Well-Armed Units Show Strongholds". The Washington Post. 3 Apr. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1. 

Dickey, Christopher. "Nothing Ragtag About Nicaraguan Rebels; Guerrillas Unleash Heavy Firepower With Made-in-U.S.A. Amrs, Equipment". The Washington Post. 3 Apr. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A14.

Dickey, Christopher. "Guerillas Pay Cash for Supplies; Rebels Seek Peasants' Support". The Washington Post. 5 Apr. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1.

Dickey, Christopher & Tyler, Patrick & Dinges, John. "Argentine Defector Tells of Multinational Plots For Sandinistas' Ouster". The Washington Post. 2 Dec. 1982. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A22. 

Dickey, Christopher & Omang, Joanne. "Alleged Author of CIA Manual Said to Be Ex-GI; He Calls Himself John Kirkpatrick". The Washington Post. 20 Oct. 1984. Final Edition. sec: First Section; World News; A12.

Omang, Joanne. "$100 Million Contra Aid About to Start Flowing; Goal Is to Make Sandanistas 'Cry Uncle'". The Washington Post. 24 Oct. 1986. Final Edition. sec: First Section; Page A20.

Omang, Joanne. "Contras: No Access To Iran-Profit Accounts". The Washington Post. 31 Jan. 1987. Final Edition. sec: First Section; Page A17.

Gerth, Jeff & Engelberh, Stephen. "MILLIONS UNTRACED IN AID TO CONTRAS OVER LAST 3 YEARS". The New York Times. 8 Apr. 1987. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 1; Column 3; Foreign Desk.

Cody, Edward. "Honduras Curbs Managua's Foes in Border Area". 3 Dec. 1982. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1. 

Cody, Edward. "Exiles Opposing Managua Seek Wider Support". The Washington Post. 8 Dec. 1982. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1. 

Cody, Edward. "New Rebel Raids Heighten Fears in Nicaragua". The Washington Post. 28 Mar. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1.

Cody, Edward. "Contras Say Supplies Sufficient Until June". The Washington Post. 24 Apr. 1984. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1. 

Cody, Edward. "Nicaragua Charges Incursion by Indians Based in Honduras". The Washington Post. 1 Apr. 1983. Final Edition. sec: First Section; World News; A17.

Cody, Edward. "Nicaraguan Rebels Go Covern Again; Guerrillas' Honduran Hosts Insists on a Lower Profile". The Washington Post. 12 Nov. 1984. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1.

Diamond, Stuart. "FILES FROM CONTRAS' BANKS SHOW PAYMENTS DURING BAN". The New York Times. 7 Mar. 1987. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section 1; Page 8; Column 5; Foreign Desk.

Hockstader, Lee. "OBITUARIES; Ex-Contra Leader Enrique Berm?dez, 58, Is Slain". The Washington Post. 18 Feb. 1991. Final Edition. sec: Metro; Page D4. 

Ridings, Alan. "NICARAGUAN SEES SALVADOR LINK IN REBEL ATTACKS". The New York Times. 25 Mar. 1983. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 5; Column 1; Foreign Desk.

Ridings, Alan. "TRACKING WASHINGTON'S ENDS AND MEANS IN CENTRAL AMERICA". The New York Times. 3 Apr. 1983. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section 4; Page 2; Column 1; Week in Review Desk.

Taubman, Philip. "LEFTING CITIZENS GIVE REBELS AID WAS U.S. POLICIY". The New York Times. 11 Sep. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 1; Column 5; Foreign Desk.

Matas, Robert & Shalom, Francois. "Montreal arms firm linked to shipments". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 6 May 1987. Correction Appended. 

Niedergang, Marcel. "Central America in turmoil". Guardian Weekly. 15 Aug. 1982. sec: LE MONDE; pg 11. 

LeMoyne, James. "NICARAGUAN REBELS SAID TO GET MISSILES". The New York Times. 4 May. 1985. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section 1; pg 4; Column; 1; Foreign Desk.

LeMoyne, James. "FIRST GROUP OF THE CONTRAS COMPLETES FLORIDA TRAINING". The New York Times. 9 Jan. 1987. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 10; Column 1; Foreign Desk.

Woodward, Bob & Shapiro, Margaret & Feinman, Barbara. "CIA Sought 3rd-Country Contra Aid". The Washington Post. 19 May 1984. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A1.

Harwood, Richard. "Contas' Private Pipeline Pumps at U.S. Behest; That Reagan Backs Shipments Is No Secret". The Washington Post. 19 Oct. 1986. Final Edition. sec: First Section; Page A1.

Bonner, Raymond. "FOE OF SANDINISTS FAULTS U.S. POLICY". The New York Times. 5 Apr. 1983. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 3; Column 1; Foreign Desk.

Sharpe, Kenneth E. "ILLEGALY AIDING LATINS". The New York Times. 9 Apr. 1983. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section 1; Page 23; Column 2; Editorial Desk.

Sciolino, Elaine. "CONTRA SAYS C.I.A SUPPLY PROGRAM IS FLAWED". The New York Times. 5 Feb. 1987. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 12; Column 1; Foreign Desk. 

Sciolino, Elaine. "CONTRA LEADER DISCLOSES BANK RECORDS". The New York Times. 6 Mar. 1987. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 18; Column 1; Foreign Desk.

Pichirallo, Joe. "North-Held Funds Tied To Contras; Rebels Aides Confirm $200,000 Obtained From Swiss Account". The Washington Post. 6 Mar. 1987. Final Edition. sec: First Section; Page A1; The Crisis of the Reagan Presidency; The Investigations Continue.

Tagliabue, John. "PILOT FLYING ARMS TO CONTRAS HAD ACCOUNT AT A SWISS BANK". The New York Times. 29 Nov. 1986. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section 1; Page 5; Column 4; Foreign Desk.

Glickman, Paul. "US joins Honduras exercise". The Guardian (London). 5 Mar. 1986.

White, Michael & Brummer, Alex. "Reagan sacrifices aides in Iranian arms affair: Weapons payment illegaly diverted via Israeli middlemen to fund conta rebellion in Nicaragua". The Guardian (London). 26 Nov. 1986. 

Black, Ian. "Evidence grows of Contra dealings / Israeli links to Nicaraguan rebels". The Guardian (London). 5 Dec. 1986.

O'Connor, Anne-Marie. "U.S. to use Honduran islands as rebel bases". The Globe and Mail (Canada) 31 Oct. 1986. sec: NEWS; pg A13.

O'Connor, Anne-Marie. "2 Israelis in Honduras linked to weapons deal". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 19 Jan 1987. 

-"Nicaraguan town seized by U.S.- backed rebels". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 16 Apr. 1984.

-"Ex- Stalwarts of Sandinista Cast Take Up Life Abroad in Opposition". The Washington Post. 8 Aug. 1982. Final Edition. sec: First Section; A12.

-"Exiles act against Nicaragua". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 8 Dec. 1982. 

-"Honduran Army probes death squads Anti-Sandinistas suspected in killings". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 12 Jan. 1985. 

-"Nicaragua insurgents lose 500". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 5 Apr. 1983. 

-"Nicaragua provides list of camps". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 8 Jan. 1985. 

-"Anti-Sandinista rebels admit to CIA training". The Globe and Mail (Canada). 20 Aug. 1983. 

-"NICARAGUA, COMBATING INCURSION, WARNS HONDURAS ON RISK OF WAR". The New York Times. 22 Mar. 1983. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; page 10;

Column 3; Foreign Desk.

-"COCA-COLA SEIZED IN MANAGUA". The New York Times. 23 Mar. 1983. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 4; Column 3; Foreign Desk.

-"NICARAGUA SAYS HONDURAN FIRED ON BORDER POSTS". The New York Times. 30 Mar. 1983. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 8; Column 3; Foreign Desk.

-"C.I.A SAID TO PRODUCE MANUAL FOR ANTI-SANDINISTAS". The New York Times. 15 Oct. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 7; Column 1; Foreign Desk.

-"C.I.A MANUAL SENT BY BALLOON?". The New York Times. 7 Dec. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 4; Column 3; Foreign Desk.

-"REAGAN ASSAILED OVER NICARAGUA". The New York Times. 18 Sep. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 3; Column 1; Foreign Desk.

-"REAGAN TAKES A BREAK FROM THE FUROR OVER VENTRAL AMERICA". The New York Times. 22 Apr. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section 4; Page 1; Column 1; Week in Review Desk.

-"Israelis helped ship arms to rebels, Hondurans say". The Toronto Star. 19 Jan. 1987. sec: NEWS; pg A5.

-"C.I.A AID TO REBELS REPORTED". The New York Times. 14 Apr. 1984. Late City Final Edition. sec: Section A; Page 8; Column 4; Foreign Desk.

-"Senate creates committee to investigate Iran affair". St. Petersburg Times (Florida). City Edition. sec: NATIONAL; pg 3A.